Is There an Equivalent of MMPI-2 Codetype 1–3/3–1 in the MMPI-2-RF Scales?


Narae Lee

Publication Date



The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) is the much-awaited update of the almost 30-year-old MMPI-2 instrument (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989). However, the revamping of the MMPI-2 item pools into MMPI-2-RF’s 50 scales ushered in an urgent need to empirically validate and examine the measure in light of the extensive MMPI-2 research foundation. Therefore, valid MMPI-2 protocols of one of the most frequently occurring codetypes, 1-3/3-1, from the Caldwell dataset (Greene, 1997) were chosen and converted to MMPI-2-RF profiles (N = 2,367). Descriptive statistics including frequency of scale elevations and correlations among the scales were obtained on the MMPI-2-RF profiles to gauge how a well-known and well-studied codetype of the MMPI-2 would manifest in the MMPI-2-RF scales, including within its core restructured clinical (RC) scales. Overall, the 1-3/3-1 codetype primarily elevated the somatic scales of the MMPI-2-RF, including the RC1 and its associated Somatic/Cognitive scales, such as Malaise (MLS), Gastro-Intestinal Complaints (GIC), Head Pain Complaints (HPC), and Neurological Complaints (NUC). The 1-3/3-1 profiles of the MMPI-2, however, did not evidence demoralization in RCd and also did not elevate cognitive complaints, as measured by the Cognitive Complaints (COG) Scale. The existence of subtypes within the 1-3/3-1 sample led to vastly different scale elevations on the MMPI-2-RF and, therefore, caution is warranted in assuming linearity of the MMPI-2-RF with the MMPI-2 in interpretation. Rather, the editions need to be seen as two separate instruments with their own unique strengths and weaknesses and research basis.

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology (PhD, Non-Clinical)

First Advisor

Kim, Seong-Hyeon

Document Type





Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory for Adolescents, Adolescent psychopathology, Personality tests




Public Access: If you attend a college or university, you may be granted access for free through your school library subscription to ProQuest Theses & Dissertations. Copies may be available for purchase via ProQuest Dissertations Publishing https://dissexpress.proquest.com/search.html

Upload File


Embargo Period