The Relationship of ApoA-1 and Cholesterol in the CSF and Blood to Verbal Episodic Memory Performance
Apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1) has been shown to attenuate atherosclerosis, in addition to having numerous functions in the brain, positively influencing dementia risk. This study investigated the hypothesis that increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and decreased plasma ApoA-1 levels would predict poorer performance on verbal episodic learning and memory, the characteristic deficit in cognitive decline due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants (N = 110; Mage = 78.23, SD = 7.81; ages 47-97) were administered list-learning, and narrative memory tasks. CSF and plasma ApoA-1 levels were obtained using standard enzyme linked immunoassay for ApoA-1, and chemical assay was utilized for cholesterols. CSF ApoA-1 was negatively associated with both kinds of memory in the total sample, while CSF cholesterol was only positively associated with narrative memory. Relationships of CSF ApoA-1 and CSF cholesterol to memory measures demonstrated unique differences between males and females. Additionally, while memory measures used in this study appeared to vary in their association to biomarkers analyzed, the recognition discriminability consistently predicted levels of ApoA-1 in the plasma and CSF. Results also demonstrated that CSF cholesterol was uniquely associated with contextual memory rather than list-learning. These findings suggest that the use of the recognition discriminability indices might enhance the differential diagnosis of ApoA-1 related pathologies. Furthermore, the pattern of associations of ApoA-1 and cholesterols to diverse memory measures for males and females may point to gender dissimilarity in the metabolism of cholesterol and lipoproteins that differentially contribute to neurodegenerative decline.
Memory, Cerebrospinal fluid
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