Investigating the Hierarchical Structure of the Personality Psychopathology – Five (PSY-5-2) Scales


David S. Pyo

Publication Date



The purpose of this study was to investigate the hierarchical structure of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – Second Edition (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5-2) scales as it relates to the proposed alternative model for personality disorder diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (DSM-5). The study set out to accomplish 3 goals: (a) test the a priori theory that the PSY-5-2 is best represented as a 5-factor model through an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), (b) examine the hierarchical factor structure of the PSY-5-2 using the “bass-ackwards” analysis method (Goldberg, 2006), and (c) compare the hierarchical structure of the PSY-5-2 to other well-established models of personality. The results of the EFA demonstrated that the 5-factor solution best fit the data. The hierarchical structure of the PSY-5-2 identified in the “bass-ackwards” analysis further supported the 5-factor solution identified in the EFA. I compared the hierarchical factor structure of the PSY-5-2 with other popular factor structures of personality disorder classification including the PSY-5-r of the MMPI-2-RF, the 5-factor model (FFM) of the Neuroticism Extroversion and Openness (NEO) family of instruments, and the proposed Personality Inventory of the DSM-5 (PID-5). Although there were some differences, the overall factor structure of the PSY-5-2 was quite similar to these models of personality disorder throughout the hierarchical levels. The results of this study provided construct validity for the a priori theoretical structure of the PSY-5 model and demonstrated convergent validity with other well-utilized models dimensional personality measurement. The findings of this study provided evidence for the use of the MMPI-2 as a comprehensive psychological assessment measure for syndromal as well as dimensional personality traits.

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Clinical Psychology (PhD)

First Advisor

Kim, Seong-Hyeon

Document Type





Mental illness, Personality and cognition, Psychological tests, Pathological




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