Alone Together: An Empirical Study of Relational Mindfulness
In mindfulness research, much focus has been put on outcome measures without teasing out the factors involved. Many theorists (such as R. A. Baer, S. R. Bishop, K. W. Brown, E. J. Langer, and S. L. Shapiro) suggested various definitions of the construct, but mostly from Western approaches. As Frijda and Sundararajan (2007) pointed out, “Mindfulness is more of an ideal in Buddhist and Taoist traditions than it is in the West” (p. 238). The present study, Alone Together, was a replication of the research based on the model of mindfulness suggested by Sundararajan and Fatemi (2016b). The present study referred to the same theoretical framework but was repeated with subjects in a cultural background (Western) different from the previous study (Non-Western). The present study captured two important elements of mindfulness: (a) Alone, or solitude caught the attention element of mindfulness; (b) Together, caught the intention of mindfulness. The findings supported that intention—relating to nature in a symmetrical or asymmetrical manner—had far reaching ramifications for psychological well-being, as measured by mood states and solitude scales.
Doctor of Philosophy in Clinical Psychology (PhD)
Dueck, Alvin C.
Mindfulness, Solitude, Clinical psychology