All Things Through Him Who Strengthens Me: Religious Coping, Self-Efficacy, and Post-traumatic Stress Among Teachers in El Salvador

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The psychological ramifications of exposure to traumatic events can be debilitating and the process of coping with exposure is complicated. A large body of research has demonstrated that religious coping can be a significant resource for individuals. However, there is contention in the literature as to the specific process by which religious coping effects outcomes. Some authors have suggested that the relationship between religious coping and trauma outcomes is mediated by other psychological resources, which, if true, could have serious theoretical and clinical implications. However, important as it is to understand how religious coping factors may impact outcomes to trauma, research into this interaction has been limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether positive religious coping, as measured by the Brief Religious Coping Scale, was linked with posttraumatic stress symptomatology, as measured by a subscale on the Los Angeles Symptom Checklist, through a meditated relationship with generalized self-efficacy, as measured by the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. The results of the analysis suggested that the participants’ reported positive religious coping was not associated with a change in posttraumatic stress symptomatology, and the effects of reported generalized self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship. Limitations to the study, implications, and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Clinical Psychology (PhD)

First Advisor

Putman, Katharine M.

Document Type





Post-traumatic stress disorder, Adjustment, Pastoral care, El Salvador, Pastoral counseling, Self-efficacy




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