Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the MMPI-2 Scale 4

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The aim of the study was to better understand the factor structure of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Scale 4, Psychopathic Deviate (Pd), by using more advanced statistical analysis than previous research. A review of survey data suggested the most widely used and researched psychological assessment in the United States is the MMPI-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989; Graham, 2006; Greene, 2000). Scale 4 has been described as assessing an individual’s “rebelliousness ” or non-conformity to social norms based on empirically keying of a normative sample in Minnesota 70 years ago (Graham, 2006; Greene, 2000). In an effort to better understand what Scale 4 measures, previous factor analyses among researchers Comery (1958) and Almagor and Koren (2001) resulted in different factors and factor structures among the scale’s 50 items. The Harris-Lingoes Scales were rationally developed in 1955; however, researchers have been unable to statistically replicate that factor structure (Almagor & Koren, 2001; Comery, 1958). Nonetheless, Scale 4 continues to provide insight about psychological functioning in a variety of settings including outpatient, inpatient, forensic, and occupational. The current study assessed the structure through exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis with Mplus software on a sample of 52,543 MMPI-2 profiles. The sample was taken from the Caldwell Clinical Dataset (Greene, 1997) and included MMPI-2 profiles from psychiatric inpatients and outpatients across the United States. The final model contained 6 well-defined factors with 25 items. Content review of factors revealed Scale 4 should be viewed as an indication of general psychological distress and rebelliousness.

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Clinical Psychology (PhD)

First Advisor

Kim, Seong-Hyeon

Document Type





Confirmatory factor analysis, Exploratory factor analysis, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Antisocial personality disorders




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