The Effects of Divine Comfort and Divine Strain on Self-Efficacy and Positive Well-Being Among Adolescents

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This study was designed to examine the role of self-efficacy in explaining the link between divine comfort, divine strain, and adolescent positive well-being. Further, I examined the interaction between divine strain and divine comfort in relation to self-efficacy and positive well-being to capture the possible complexity of holding both views towards the divine. Research has found that both divine strain and divine comfort have opposing effects on adolescent positive well-being, but there remains a gap in psychological literature regarding their interaction. It may be that divine comfort is more effective in producing or enhancing self-efficacy, and, in turn, well-being, when individuals have relatively low levels of divine strain. I have examined how divine strain interacts with the relationship between divine comfort and self-efficacy, which previous research has found to generally produce well-being. Confirming the hypotheses, multiple regression analyses revealed that divine comfort fosters positive well-being through greater perceptions of self-efficacy only when levels of divine strain are at a low or medium level. Hypotheses and results are considered, and the implications of these findings are discussed.

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Clinical Psychology (PhD)

First Advisor

Houltberg, Benjamin

Document Type





Divine strain, Divine comfort, Self-efficacy, Positive psychological well-being, Positive well-being, Well-being, Spirituality, Adolescents, Youth, Teenagers, Religious life, Psychology and religion


Clinical Psychology | Personality and Social Contexts


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